All posts by Cindy Ng

[Podcast] I’m Brian Vecci, Technical Evangelist at Varonis, and This is H...

[Podcast] I’m Brian Vecci, Technical Evangelist at Varonis, and This is How I Work


Leave a review for our podcast & we'll send you a pack of infosec cards.

If you’ve ever seen Technical Evangelist Brian Vecci present, his passion for Varonis is palpable. He makes presenting look effortless and easy, but as we all know, excellence requires a complete devotion to the craft. I recently spoke to him to gain insight into his work and to shed light on his process as a presenter.

“When I first started presenting for Varonis, I’d have the presentation open on one half of the screen and Evernote open on the other half and actually write out every word I was going to say for each slide,” said Brian.

From there, he improvises from the script.

“I’d often change things up while presenting based on people’s reactions or questions, but the process of actually writing everything out first made responding and reacting and changing the presentation a lot easier. I still do that, especially for new presentations.”

According to Varonis CMO David Gibson:

Brian’s high energy, curiosity, and multi-faceted skills – technical aptitude, communication skills, sales acumen, and organizational capabilities -make him an exceptional evangelist.

Read on to learn more about Brian – this time, in his own words.

What would people never guess you do in your role?

I’m really lucky that my role at Varonis lets me engage with people all over the company, including Marketing, Sales, Support, Engineering, and Product Management, so I’m not sure that there’s anything anyone would never guess about what I do.

When it comes to the more public aspects of what I do, like press, Connect events, and customer meetings, I spend more time drilling and practicing what I’m going to say so that when I’m on stage or in front of a camera, I can improvise off a script rather than trying to remember what I’m supposed to be talking about.

What did you learn about yourself after working at Varonis?

That I need to spend more time listening and less time talking. One of my first trips I made at Varonis was going to a few customer meetings in California and before I left David Gibson reminded me to “make the meeting about them,” meaning the people I was meeting with. It’s still something I’m working to get better at and have to consistently remind myself of.

How has Varonis helped you in your career development?

It would be hard to come up with ways that Varonis hasn’t helped me in my career.

I’ve become way more confident in front of audiences. I’ve gotten better at confidently talking about things I know well and I’ve gotten more comfortable with saying, “I don’t know.”

I was always in technical roles before coming to Varonis and sometimes it’s hard to admit that you don’t know something when it’s your job to.

What advice do you have for prospective candidates?

Varonis more than anywhere else I’ve ever worked rewards energy, enthusiasm, and hard work.

We’re much bigger than we were when I joined back in 2010, but there’s still so many things that we’re learning how to do well as a company.

The people who succeed here are the ones that do, fail, and get better.

What do you like most about the company? 

I admire how much of our leadership has been here for so long, and I think that’s reflective of everyone having the same goal.

It’s been rare in my career before coming to Varonis to feel like a part of an organization on a mission. That’s never been an issue here.

I know what it’s like to work somewhere where the leaders have no vision, let alone the ability to execute on it.

What’s the biggest data security problem your prospects are faced with?

When I first got here we were spending a lot of time just teaching our prospects that security on file systems was possible!

Making sure the right people had access to what they were supposed to was an impossible problem to solve for so many people for so long that we had to spend a lot of time just education people that we understood the root of their problems and could actually fix them.

These days everyone seems to know it’s a problem and the biggest challenge our prospects face is knowing how to get there.

“I get what you (Varonis) do, but tell me how we can actually get there” is something I hear a lot. That’s probably because I spend a lot of time talking about our Operational Journey these days.

What certificates do you have?

I’ve got a CISSP, which is the only certification I ever put a lot of work into.

Fave book?

I love to read and have a bunch. I read The Count of Monte Cristo every few years, so that’s up there. Dune is another one that I try and read every now and then. Gateway by Frederick Pohl as well. The book that helped me most with my job is Working with Emotional Intelligence by Daniel Coleman.

What is your fave time hack?

Adding my flights and hotels to my wife’s Gmail calendar because what do you mean you didn’t know I was going to be in London this week?

What’s your favorite quote?

Decisions are made by those who show up. I’m not sure who to attribute it to, but the first person I remember saying it to me was my father.

Interested in becoming Brian’s colleague? Check out our open positions, here!

Brian Vecci

Hi, my name is Brian Vecci and I’m currently a technical evangelist at Varonis, and this is how I work.

Cindy Ng

Thanks, Brian, for joining us today. How long have you been with Varonis?

Brian Vecci

That’s an interesting question. I’ve been with Varonis since March of 2010. But as some or many people may know, I actually left for about 10 months before coming back. I’m in my second term at Varonis, and I’ve been here now for…in my second stint for about two and a half years. But when I introduce myself I say I’ve been here since 2010.

Cindy Ng

What was your background prior to joining Varonis?

Brian Vecci

I went to college and studied computer science and music. And I came out of college and immediately went to work as a web developer. So I was an engineer, and I spent time doing web and applications development. And I discovered that I’m generally better at talking about the kinds of things that I was doing and helping other people understand the technology that I was building than actually building the technology which people that know me probably won’t surprise anybody.

So I was an engineer, an applications developer then I moved into project management. I was a project manager for a while, a systems architect. And right before I came to Varonis, I was in desktop architecture for an investment bank. And before that I had done project management at a law firm and I’d been in a publishing company. So I’d kind of been in IT and IT applications and a few different roles and hopped around a few different industries before coming to Varonis.

Cindy Ng

And how did you know that Varonis was a good fit for you?

Brian Vecci

I knew immediately that Varonis was a good fit for me because I needed a job and they offered me a job. So the fact that I got a job offer was the first big clue but really I connected with an old manager of mine at a law firm, Chadbourne & Parke who’s one of the best managers that I’d ever had up until that point, introduced me. He know I was looking for a job and introduced me to a friend of his at another law firm who had a friend who worked for this tiny startup company called Varonis who was looking for someone to do what they were calling technical marketing which is something that I’d never done before.

And so I interviewed with this guy, his name is David Gibson, and he was a former SE and was looking for someone technical, and I met him and we got along great. And then a couple of days later I met a guy named Mark Wilcox and we got along really well, and a couple of days later I sat in a windowless conference room in New York City, then a couple of guys named Ken Spinner and Jim O’Boyle and a few. About 30 minutes into that meeting I met a guy name Yaki Faitelson, and every single person that I met along the way was passionate and enthusiastic and super intelligent and seemed to work really hard and really believed really strongly in what they were doing, and I had no idea what we were doing at that point. I didn’t really know what Varonis did. I had some kind of inkling.

So it was less the company itself and more the people that I was about to start working with that made me pretty confident that this was gonna be a good fit and it turned out to be right.

Cindy Ng

And what did you learn about yourself after working at Varonis?

Brian Vecci

That I need to spend way less time talking and way more time listening. It’s one of the first lessons that David tried to impart on me. I remember before in one of my first trips out to do some customer meetings, he said to me, “You know, Brian, you’ve got to always remember make the meeting about them not about you.” And anybody who knows me well will hear me say that out loud and laugh at me because they realize that’s still something that I struggle with sometimes.

But learning how to shut up and listen, have a little bit of empathy and think about the people that you’re talking to and what they care about was one of the hardest lessons for me to learn because it’s something that I’m not naturally good at but it’s something that stuck with me for eight years and something that I continue to work on. I think about it as something that I’m hopefully a little bit better at than I used to be and that I continue to improve on. And every time I’m mindful and focused on listening to others I find that I get better at what I do and feel better about what I do.

Cindy Ng

And when you go to a meeting, when you talk to them, what is the biggest data security problem your prospects are faced with?

Brian Vecci

Well, I spend a lot of time in meetings talking these days about our operational journey. And that means the biggest data security problem, the prospects that I’m talking to when I’m talking to, the biggest problem that they face is, they know they have a big problem. They know they have a ton of data.

They may know that some of it is sensitive, they may not, they may have some ideas of where it is, they may have some sense of the scale of the problem that they’re facing trying to help the right people have access to the right data but the biggest problem they face is, “All right. We know we have these huge problems, we get it. How do we get there? How do we go from the state where everything is chaos to this vision that you’re talking about where only the right people have access to just what they’re supposed to and everything’s monitored. When something goes wrong we know about it?”

So the biggest problem these days is just how to get there. It’s less about a specific technical problem and more about, “I don’t know what I need to do first, second, third or fourth,” which is really different like even when you and I started here. Like seven, eight years ago the biggest problem that we faced was that our prospects had no idea that they had these problems. We spent so much time just educating people first of all, unstructured data or data on file systems is important and it was exposed and they had no idea how big of a problem they had, let alone what they needed to do to fix it. That’s changed. These days most people know that they have a big problem, they just don’t know how to get there.

So what I’m finding is when I am talking to a prospect it’s because they wanna learn about, you know, what our operational journey looks like. Those are words that we use, but what it really means is, “I know I have big problems. I have a sense that you can help me. How can we actually get to the state that you’re talking about?” If that makes some sense

Cindy Ng

Yeah. Take us through an operational journey from start to finish that you think might be helpful for our listeners to understand the important work you do. Let’s start with verticals. Do verticals matter? Does this journey apply to every company?

Brian Vecci

I think the journey applies to every company because every company has data but that doesn’t mean that verticals don’t matter. Verticals do matter because the ways a bank thinks about their data because they’re so highly regulated, because they know they’ve got, for instance, customer information, that if it was exposed or leaked improperly could result in big fines, the kinds of things highly regulated industries think about when it comes to their data are a little bit different than, for instance, a media company or somebody who’s not as regulated.

Everybody’s got the same problems but the vertical can really dictate sometimes how a prospect thinks about or even talks about their data. That said, the operational journey, it’s pretty much the same. We don’t have to change what our journey looks like depending on the vertical. Everybody gets a lot of data, and if they’ve never worked with Varonis before I’m pretty sure they don’t really have a handle on what kind of data they have, meaning what sensitive and what’s not. They really don’t have a handle on where it all is.

They’re probably not monitoring how it’s used. There’s a sound bite that I use often, you can’t catch what you can’t see, and you can’t manage what you don’t monitor, which sounds trite but are absolutely true. It’s really difficult to make decisions about something when you know nothing about it and so many companies know nothing about their data.

So the journey starts with, and this is gonna sound kind of sales-y because we spend a lot of time building content for Salesforce to learn, but turning on the light, just helping somebody understand, “Listen, here’s where your data is. Here’s who got access to it. Here’s what’s sensitive, here’s where it’s exposed, and look, here’s how it’s being used.” And when you do that, when you just start with that you’re often so much further ahead than you were before.

The journey then kind of moves on to not only understanding what you’ve got but fixing the biggest problems. When you turn on the lights you can start to prioritize and understand where you’re exposed and where you’re at risk.

One of the things that I talk a lot about, many of the presentations that I give is that risk is a pretty simple equation. It’s how valuable is something and how likely is it that something’s gonna go wrong with that asset or that data? So how valuable is our data? What’s the likelihood that it’s gonna get lost or stolen or misused? And our operational…a big part of our operational journey is helping our prospects to quantify that.

How many folders do you have that have sensitive data that are exposed to many people, that are exposed to global access groups? That’s easy for us to put numbers behind, very hard for someone to do without Varonis. But once you understand where you’re exposed, we call it prevent. We detect and then prevent, but preventing disaster means reducing exposure, making sure only the right people have access to what they’re supposed to, locking down sensitive data, getting rid of global access, and starting to figure out who this data belongs to so that you can get them involved in making decisions.

Finally, the last step of the journey is to automate things like entitlement reviews. Why should somebody at the helpdesk or somebody in security or somebody in IT be making regular decisions about who should and shouldn’t have access? It’s the data owners, it’s the people who understand and have real context that should be.

So automating entitlement reviews, automating authorization workflows, automating quarantining and retention and disposition, these are all kind of technical ways of saying, “Once you understand your data and you lock it down, you can start to treat it like you would anything else that’s valuable,” and Varonis can help you do that in an automated way so that you’re not going through endless projects for annual clean-ups and things like that, which is what we see our prospects either are doing or have done in the past in trying to solve some of these problems.

Cindy Ng

So how can you turn on the lights for our customers? How do they acknowledge their problem? Do they know that they have problems? How do they respond?

Brian Vecci

Customers who or prospects, I should say, who we do risk assessment for and we’re completely shocked by what we found. I hear stories a lot of sale teams being kicked out of the room when somebody says, “You know what? We had no idea that this much sensitive data was this exposed, that you can’t see this, like we could all get in a lot of trouble, you have to leave the room.” So sometimes it’s really surprising.

Other times and this is becoming more common these days, a prospect will know that they have a big problem but they didn’t realize maybe the extent of it or they’ve never seen it presented in such a comprehensive way. Our risk assessments are so valuable, and it’s one of the reasons we talk about or evaluations or our proofs of concept as a risk assessment these days because that’s really what they are.

We can go in and give somebody a pretty clear picture of what their environment looks like without a whole lot of work. We can tell them concretely, “Here’s how much data you have, here’s how much of it is sensitive and here’s how much of it is open. Here’s literally how much risk you’re facing right now and here’s how you can kind of fix all these problems.”

So, to answer it, I think your question is, “Do they know it’s a problem?” Sometimes they do, sometimes they don’t. Oftentimes they have no idea of the real scale of the problem or even if they do know they have a big problem it’s still eye-opening for us to do a risk assessment and show them really specifically exactly where the problems are and how they can actually fix them.

Cindy Ng

So after they kick you out and hopefully they bring you back in and that you try to convince them that our methodology is the right one to follow, how do you convince them that there’s so many solutions to a problem? Why is the Varonis way the right way?

Brian Vecci

I’m going to disagree with you that there’s so many solutions to a problem because this particular problem, especially when we’re talking about a data stores like file systems that are pretty chaotic, there aren’t a lot of solutions to that problem.

What we’re very fortunate in that Varonis has technology that’s unique. Nobody else does what we do the way that we do it. And I can speak from personal experience. Having spent some time at one of our competitors, nobody else does what we do the way that we do it. So when we can come in and present not just, “Hey, look, we showed you, you have a big problem, but we showed you you have a big problem and we have the technology to help you solve it, and we have the track record and experience to show you that we’re good at actually doing this.” Our methodology, it’s not pie in the sky, it’s not in theory. We’ve got more than 6250 as our last earnings call.

That’s a lot of customers who have used Varonis to actually solve some of these problems. So our methodology is based on experience and that carries a lot of weight. There’s lots of ways to solve this problem, it’s really, in our experience, there’s very, very few ways to solve this problem, and we’re fortunate enough that if you wanna solve it you need not only a methodology to do it, you need an approach, you need technology to enable that approach to actually work.

And I speak honestly in my experience, Varonis is the only way to do it, which it’s a lot of fun to work for a place where you can not only identify a big problem but help people solve it and you’re the only ones that can do it. We’re in a really unique situation.

Cindy Ng

What do they initially buy when they decide that Varonis is the only way?

Brian Vecci

Everybody has Windows data or CIFs data, whether it’s NAS or on Windows File Servers. So, most commonly it’s DatAdvantage for Windows because that’s what gives you the ability to not only monitor everything but map all of the identities and all of the permissions. That’s pretty critical to turning on the lights. Another big part of turning on the lights is understanding where sensitive data is. So data classification. And our data classification engine is kind of a no-brainer. So that’s a big…that’s a pretty common piece of that initial package.

And then the great thing about DatAlert and DatAlert suite is that it becomes more powerful the more ingredients, the more we call them behavior streams or metadata streams that you give it. The more information the DatAlert has to analyze and alert you the more valuable it is. So with DatAdvantage for Windows you’re mapping permissions, you’re monitoring Windows data and access activity for the users on that data. Data classification gives you some context in what’s sensitive and what’s not which is really important.

And Directory Services allows you to monitor Active Directory too, everybody has Active Directory. So those I think are the most common but I wanna be careful about saying what are, you know, our most common package is.

Cindy Ng

And then how do you quantify the improvement so that customers know that you’ve helped them and they wanna continue the journey with you?

Brian Vecci

It’s a really excellent question. And it’s a big part of our risk assessment, is to quantify what their risk is, what their risk profile is. And we quantify that by how much data do you have? How much of that is sensitive and how much of that is open? And if you just track those things, “All right. How many folders do I have? How many of those folders are open to everybody or, you know, open to lots of people? How many of those folders that are open are also contain sensitive information?”

If you take that number and you start tracking it over time and you see the number of, you know, folders that are sensitive and open and you see that number going down, you see the number of folders that are stale and you see that number going down because you’re deleting or archiving it, you see the number of things like users who are enabled but not active, or users that have passwords set not to expire or the number of file system artifacts like orphaned SIDs or individuals on access control lists or the number of issues that we find in Active Directory, there’s lots of really specific metrics that only we can measure, and I say only we because we’re the only ones that have the ability to scan every single folder and subfolder and every single sharepoint site and sub-sites, and we monitor every single data touch. We’re the only ones that can really do that especially at scale.

We can start to put really specific metrics behind, “All right. Here’s what you’ve got. Here’s where you’re at risk, and here’s how you can measure the improvement over time.” And that’s what we show our prospect in a risk assessment, and hopefully, that’s what we’re tracking as they go through our operational journey.

Cindy Ng

And describe what utopia would look like in a company’s file system?

Brian Vecci

I would say, here’s what utopia looks like, and this is part of a lot of the presentations that I give these days. Like what is the Varonis’ vision for how you can think about your data? And it’s pretty straightforward. You know where all your sensitive data is, you can make sure that only the right people have access to it, and really, people, users only have access to what they’re supposed to, that everything is monitored. Every time someone touches data it’s monitored and recorded.

So just like how a bank has a pretty good idea when your credit card is being misused because they know a lot about you, right? They know who you are, they know where you live, they know what you shop for, they know in the amounts that you shop for and where you shop, and really, really critically, they watch every dollar that goes in and out of your account because that’s their business.

Well, you can start to treat data that way if you know everything about your users and what they have access to and where sensitive data is and really critically, you watch every time someone opens, creates, moves, modify it and deletes data, you can start to treat your data like a bank treats your credit card, and that means you know when something goes wrong.

So not only do you know where your sensitive data is and you can make sure the right people have access to it but you also watch everything that every user in every service account does. So you know what’s normal and then you know what’s abnormal, and if something goes wrong you can respond to it intelligently and really really quickly. And then you can automate things like retention and dispositions.

And what that means is, when you don’t need data anymore you can delete it, archive it, move it somewhere else. If somebody put something sensitive where it’s not supposed to be, you’ve got automation in place to quarantine it. Somebody drops a sensitive file in an open share, it automatically gets moved somewhere else, that’s locked down and properly protected.

You know who data belongs to and you’ve got those owners involved. So when someone needs access to data it’s your data owners that are saying yes or no, and that whole process is recorded. The data owners are reviewing access on a regular basis. They’re doing access recertification, we call them entitlement reviews.

So once a quarter your owners are looking at who has access to the data and they’re making decisions about who should and shouldn’t have access to data. And then from a compliance standpoint, not only do you know what’s happening to your data and you know what’s sensitive, and you can make sure that it’s locked down, but when someone needs access to it you’ve got a record of who asked for it, who approved it, when they approved it, why they approved it because you’ve got DatAvantage monitoring everything for every single thing that they did while they had that data.

The vision is just to start treating data like a smart company treats anything else that’s valuable. And the biggest journey that we’ve been on as a company over the last…since I’ve been here since the last…in the last eight years, it’s helping the rest of the world understand just how valuable this data is and that it’s possible to put the kind of controls and protections and processes around file systems as they do anything else that’s really valuable in the company.

Cindy Ng

What other byproducts have you been able to help our customers find since they were looking to achieve these privilege model? Where they able to find other solutions that they didn’t initially realize that Varonis helped them with?

Brian Vecci

As for the kinds of things that companies tend to discover and the kind of use cases that gets opened up, but once you start treating data this way you can start connecting things like your SIM to your file systems, which is a…it’s really, really difficult to do unless you’ve got Varonis, by sending alerts from DatAlert off to the SIM for instance or connecting identity management to your file systems.

Cindy Ng

Outside of work when you’re not presenting or traveling to another meeting, what do you like to do?

Brian Vecci

I like to read a lot and I spend a lot of time on planes so I spend a lot of time reading. I play the guitar and I’m pretty confident that’s one of the reasons that David Gibson hired me, was that I was a guitar player. I have a little home studio in my basement. I recently moved from Brooklyn out to New Jersey. And I’ve been joking with a lot of people that I bought a farm. I didn’t actually buy a farm although I looked at it, but I’m just spending a lot of time learning what it’s like to own and run a house.

Having a house and having a kind of a big piece of property is something that’s new to me. So over the last year, really, the last six, eight months since I’ve done that, I’ve been learning a lot about what it means to kind of be a homeowner, which is exciting and fun and may sound l kind of pedestrian and not as exciting as some of the other stuff that I get to do, but for me, it’s been really, really interesting.

Cindy Ng

Well, thank you so much, Brian. And we wish you the best.

Brian Vecci

Thank you. It’s been great talking to you. And, Cindy, it’s been great working with you for the past eight years. And when did you join Varonis? You were the first person that was hired in our team after I joined.

Cindy Ng

It was 2010.

Brian Vecci

Yeah, 2010. So we’ve been here for a while. It’s been great working with you and I look forward to lots more in the future.

Australian Notifiable Data Breach Scheme, Explained

Australian Notifiable Data Breach Scheme, Explained

A third time is a charm, in life and in data breach notifications laws. On February 13, 2017, the Australian government, in its third attempt, passed the Notifiable Data Breaches scheme, which finally came into effect on February 22nd of this year.

While we all have a conceptual idea of what a data breach notification means, but when it comes to required action, we have to look at the nitty gritty details. Let’s start with how a data breach is defined down under.

Australia’s Definition of a Data Breach

Australia defines a breach broadly enough to include unauthorized disclosure or access of personal information, which means that a ransomware attack that encrypts but does not exfiltrate data can constitute a reportable breach.

Like the GDPR, Australia broadly considers personal data to be any information about an identified individual or that can be reasonably linked to an individual.

In real-world terms, it means that if hackers get phone numbers, bank account data, or medical records, then it’s considered a breach. For more examples on the kinds of data that may increase the risk of serious harm if there is a data breach, click here.

Australia’s Data Breach Notification Rules

The rules will apply to any organisation with an annual turnover of more than $3 million, but small businesses under that threshold will still be subject to compliance if they handle sensitive health documents or government contracts.

The new Australian amendment also has a harm threshold that has to be met for the breach to be reportable. This is not unusual–we’ve seen these same harm thresholds in US states breach notification laws, and even the EU’s GDPR and the NIS Directive.

In the Australian case, the language used is that the breach will “likely to result in serious harm.”  While not explicitly stated, the surrounding context in the amendment says that breach would have to cause serious physical, psychological, emotional, economic, reputational, and financial harm or other effect that a “reasonable” person would agree.

Australian Privacy Commissioner Timothy Pilgrim describes serious harm in the following way,Well, serious harm can manifest in a number of ways. It can be through financial harm, so, someone’s account’s been at risk in a financial institution. It can be psychological or emotional harm, for example, if someone’s health records were breached. There can be reputational harm, if the wrong information gets out, as well.”

After the Breach that Caused Serious Harm

As soon as an organisation is aware of a harmful breach event, then Australian organizations will have to notify the regulators as soon as possible after discovery. They’ll need to provide them with breach details, including the information accessed, as well as steps affected individuals should take.

If an organization fails to report a serious data breach, or fails to report a data breach on two or more separate occasions, the Office of the Australian Information Commissioner has the ability to seek a civil penalty order against the organisation of up to $2.1 million AU, depending on the significance and harm that may result from the breach.

Organisations can submit their notification of a data breach to the Australian Commissioner through the Notifiable Data Breach form. Afterwards, they can notify individuals as soon as possible.

Exceptions to the Rule

As a side note, the Australian breach notification rule goes further with explicit remediation exceptions that give the covered entities – privacy sector companies, government agencies, and health care providers – a bit of wiggle room.

If the breached entity can show that they have taken actions involving the disclosure or access before it results in serious harm, then they don’t have to report it.

Particularly with health care providers, this exception is intended to avoid duplication of notices under the NDB scheme and the data breach notification requirements in the My Health Record system.

But How Will You Know When There’s Breach?

Practically speaking, before assessing whether a breach is likely to result in serious harm, organisations first need to know when a data breach is taking place.

Employees, law enforcement agencies, customers and service providers are frequently the first to detect the problem. If you encounter ransomware, you won’t be able to get past the ransom note. But the reality is, a majority of data breach victims don’t have adequate security systems that would help them self-detect data breaches.

What’s more, while most breach compromises occur in days, most discoveries do not. The longer it takes to detect a breach, the more expensive it will be. In a recent study, US companies took an average of 206 days to detect a data breach.

In the case study below, the organisation discovered the breach through an employee.

Australian Data Breach Case Study

Recently, an Australian shipping company, Shvitzer announced that they suffered a data breach that lasted 339 days before they discovered and stopped it. Ahem, that’s 133 days over the average.

Between May 27, 2017 and March 1, 2018, up to 60,000 emails from three accounts in finance, payroll and operations were secretly auto-forwarded to two external accounts.

What initiated the investigation? Svitzer’s IT help desk got a call from an employee about an email rejection notice from an external email account.

Svitzer’s head of communications, Nicole Holyer said that the compromised email account owners couldn’t see that their emails were being forwarded.

“We’ve ruled out that it was someone internally,” Ms Holyer said. However, the outsider has not yet been identified.

What we know about outside hackers is that they can easily go around the perimeter and get inside. Without behavior-based anomaly detection, once an outsider is in, the attackers often appear as just another user.

How Alerting Assists in Incident Response

If you don’t want to wait for an employee to report suspicious behavior or wait for an anomaly to occur, alerting is a key factor in discovering and stopping exfiltration from doing even more damage.

Our friend, Australia-based security analyst Troy Hunt, said that it’s unusual to see information exfiltrated one email at a time, “One of the interesting things here is that many organisations configure their mail environment such that you cannot forward automatically to external addresses precisely because of things like this.”

For anomalies like Svitzer’s, it’s helpful to have an alerting system such as Varonis DatAlert to catch a breach similar to this one and more. With DatAlert, you can set up a rule to detect when automatic forwarding is enabled on mailboxes. This alert and others likely would have triggered and notified the proper individuals to stop the breach before any harm was done.

System Administrator Aaron Neilson of Nature’s Sunshine Products had this to say about how DatAlert helped bolster their security posture, “Certain alerts will trigger scripts that will disable accounts to prevent further harmful actions. This has helped minimize or eliminate the impact from ransomware attacks.”

What’s more, those with Exchange and Exchange Online can also leverage Varonis DatAdvantage and DatAlert to:

  • Monitor and report on all email activity (message opened, send message, edited message, mark email as read or unread)
  • Alert on abnormal email behavior such as forwarding thousands of emails to external email address
  • Alert when an account gains access to a mailbox other than their own
  • Alert when an IT admin accesses mailboxes in a suspicious way (e.g., reading the CEO’s inbox and marking messages as unread)

Today, Australian consumers who have had their personal data inappropriately accessed and put in serious harm will have the law on their side.  The Australian Notifiable Data Breach Scheme will effectively be their alerting system.

Meanwhile, organisations who need help with alerting in an incident response can try DatAlert and DatAdvantage for Exchange. The free risk assessment can help you decide.



[Podcast] Varonis CFO & COO Guy Melamed: Preventing Data Breaches and ...

[Podcast] Varonis CFO & COO Guy Melamed: Preventing Data Breaches and Reducing Risk, Part Two

This article is part of the series "[Podcast] Varonis CFO & COO Guy Melamed: Preventing Data Breaches and Reducing Risk". Check out the rest:


Leave a review for our podcast & we'll send you a pack of infosec cards.

In part two of my interview with Varonis CFO & COO Guy Melamed, we get into the specifics with data breaches, breach notification and the stock price.

What’s clear from our conversation is that you can no longer ignore the risks of a potential breach. There are many ways you can reduce risk. However, if you choose not to take action, minimally, at least have a conversation about it.

Also, around 5:11, I asked a question about IT pros who might need some help getting budget. There’s a story that might help.

Do Data Breaches Impact the Stock Price?

Guy Melamed

My name’s Guy Melamed, CFO and COO for Varonis. I’ve been with the company since 2011, in charge of all the financial statements and execution of strategic operational plans, in charge of the legal department, and IR as well. And kind of enjoying the ride.

Cindy Ng

There’s a discrepancy online where there’ve been studies that say that breaches don’t impact the stock price. Sure, a breach will typically lead to a one-time large expense or maybe smaller reoccurring expenses. There might be a potential decrease in revenue, but in the long term, investors tend to look past the breach, and they really just focus on the strength of the business and the value of the company. What do you think about data breaches and their impact on the stock price?

Guy Melamed

I’m not so qualified to talk about statistics on stock price and how a breach would affect a stock price in the short term or in the long term. What I can say is that what we’ve seen in so many events, in so many breaches that have taken place in the last couple of years, is that if you go back to those companies, and ask them would they have rather dealt with a breach or just buy a software, take measures that can help them in protecting or preventing or minimizing the amount and the magnitude of the breach, I think the answer is pretty obvious.

So we’ve seen companies that have gone out of business because of breaches. We’ve seen companies that will have to deal with litigation for years ahead. So where’s that factored in? There’s just so many components. It’s more of a philosophy that if you can do something active to try and minimize risk, then why not do it?

I think companies, more from a philosophical perspective, should try and actively take action in order to minimize risk. And companies that are under the belief that it won’t affect them and that they’re going to be okay, I think are acting slightly irresponsible.

Data Breaches and Breach Notification

Cindy Ng

Let’s talk about breach notification. It’s said that the time to discovery increases the cost of a data breach, and research has said that most companies take over six months to detect data breaches. If you’re in the EU, article 31 of the GDPR says that data controllers, they’ll need to notify authorities of a breach within 72 hours at the latest upon learning about the exposure, if it results in a risk to a consumer. If you’re already protecting or in the process of protecting your data, how do you reconcile the time in figuring this element out? What do companies need to do? How much are we talking about?

Guy Melamed

So the surveys that we’ve been tracking show that 70% of the beaches are discovered within months or years. And I think a great example of a breach that affected a company years later was a Yahoo deal. This was a breach and I don’t know if it was four years ago or three or five years ago, but it was discovered as part of an M&A process and had an effect, an actual quantifiable number that impacted the transaction price.

So a company would obviously rather try and identify breaches as soon as possible, so they can take action, minimize some of the cost and be transparent with both the customers, the investors, and the shareholders.

GDPR definitely changes the reporting requirement, and if you’re breached, you have to provide that information within 72 hours. That’s a short period of time, and in order to be able to comply with that regulation, and in order to have better tracking, you really have to have systems, programs, personnel in place to try to identify this.

And the fines that come from GDPR, I’m talking about, you know, some of the requirements and some of the fines related to those requirements, are 4% of global revenue or $25 million, whichever is greater. That’s a huge number that could affect companies in so many ways, definitely something that from our perspective what we see is causing a lot of interest, causing a lot of discussion, and companies are not ignoring the regulation because of its significance.

Should You Just Pay the Fine?

Cindy Ng

So when you’ve done the risk analysis of viewing the GDPR fines, companies resigned to paying a fine because the fine isn’t that costly. And so let’s just pay the fine and get it over with.

Guy Melamed

My response is that it probably fits with an analysis or an analogy that says if I go through a red light, I know that the fine is probably minimal and I can live with a fine. There’s so many other consequences. First of all, there’s, the fine is pretty large when it comes to GDPR.

There’re so many other components that thinking that you can be okay, and just by paying the fine and being breached is definitely not the action that I would like to take as the company’s CFO and definitely would try and act in a way that would minimize the risk long term and short term.

A Story that Might Help IT Pros Get Budget

Cindy Ng

And what are your tips for IT managers who are trying to get budget to get a data security solution they need to help prevent a breach?

Guy Melamed

So I’m not sure I’m qualified to give tips, but I will share a story that I heard from one of our customers.

And during a discussion, he was asked, “What is the best way to get budget, in order to get the Varonis product or any other product for that matter that can protect the company in the long term?”

And his response was, “Make sure the risk assessment, the evaluation and whatever you’re doing in that demo is done on the finance documents. If the finance personnel, if the CFO can see how many people have access to the financial statements or any other sensitive information within his folders or her folders and have access to information they shouldn’t have access to, you’ll find the budget, they’ll find the budget.”

So that’s definitely something that I I could relate because if I would see risk on files that I know team members shouldn’t have access to, we could move things around within the budget to have something purchased that wasn’t necessarily budget initially when I can quantify the risk in my mind.

Minimally, You Should Have a Discussion

Cindy Ng

And any final thought as CFO as it relates to the cost if you don’t invest in security?

Guy Melamed

I think no one anymore can ignore the risk. I think three, four, five years ago, we would talk to companies, show them the risk assessment, show how vulnerable they are, how many sensitive files are open to everyone in the company, show them how much data is open to everyone.

And people could live with the risk. I don’t think people, after all the breaches that have taken place and the amount of risks that companies are dealing with, can ignore it anymore. I think they have to take measures, think about it, or at least have a discussion. If they decide that they want to live with the risk, it should definitely be done after discussion with the legal department, the HR department, CEO, CFO, CISO, if all parties agree that the risk is not worth doing any, taking any action, then at least you had a conversation.

But if it’s decided by one person within the organization and it’s not shared between the different departments, between the different roles that would eventually be responsible, then I think that’s just not good practice.

[Podcast] Varonis CFO & COO Guy Melamed: Preventing Data Breaches and ...

[Podcast] Varonis CFO & COO Guy Melamed: Preventing Data Breaches and Reducing Risk, Part One

This article is part of the series "[Podcast] Varonis CFO & COO Guy Melamed: Preventing Data Breaches and Reducing Risk". Check out the rest:


Leave a review for our podcast & we'll send you a pack of infosec cards.

Recently, the SEC issued guidance on cybersecurity disclosures, requesting public companies to report data security risk and incidents that have a “material impact” for which reasonable investors would want to know about.

How does the latest guidance impact a CFO’s responsibility in preventing data breaches?  Luckily, I was able to speak with Varonis’ CFO and COO Guy Melamed on his perspective.

In part one of my interview with Guy, we discuss the role a CFO has in preventing insider threats and cyberattacks and why companies might not take action until they see how vulnerable they are with their own data.

An interview well worth your time, by the end of the podcast, you’ll have a better understanding of what IT pros, finance, legal and HR have on their minds.

Data security and the CFO: Risk and Responsibility

Guy Melamed

My name is Guy Melamed, CFO and COO for Varonis. I have been with the company since 2011. In charge of all the financial statements and execution of strategic operational plans. In charge of the legal department and IR as well and I am enjoying the ride.

Cindy Ng

Sounds great. So, today we’re gonna be discussing how much it would cost if we don’t invest in data security, and let’s start with the role of a CFO.

Right now, data breaches are one of the biggest threats that all companies face, and companies are realizing this and increasingly, they’re delegating responsibilities to the CFO. According to a survey by the American Institute of CPAs, 72% of companies, they’ve asked the finance department to take on more of a responsibility to deal with data breaches and attacks. Why should the CFO be involved in protecting the organization’s most sensitive data?

Guy Melamed

I think the answer is comprised of a couple of components. One of them has to do with the fact that CFOs are responsible for the financial statements and with recent events and with the amount of breaches that have taken place, there’s much more emphasis on the type of disclosure the company has to provide as part of the 10-K and as part of the risk factors and even as part of the MD&A. Just to give you an example, in recent months, the SEC has provided guidance on cybersecurity, board consideration, and the amount of disclosure that needs to be provided. And just to give you a sense in the release, that, as a side note, was provided by the SEC chairman, post the breach that took place in the EDGAR system which is a system that you can log in and see all of the financial statements of all companies, and there was a breach in that system and as a result the SEC had to address from a disclosure perspective what was taken and how they’re addressing that event and future events and planning to protect any future event.

So, that kind of created the guidance that was provided to all of the big four accounting firms, and private, and especially public companies have to address that. That release talks about what is company doing from a risk management perspective, how are they protecting against cybersecurity? It talks about the board’s role in overseeing the management and any immaterial cybersecurity risk. And it has a lot of discussion as to what type of disclosure needs to be provided in what event. So, when we received that publication in preparation for our 10-K filing, we had to have a discussion, where to put it, what is the risk, how are we addressing it, and a conversation like that takes place with the legal department. It takes place even with the HR department, with some of the regulation and protecting data. So, there’s a lot of components that relate to the CFO’s role in order to making sure that we address it properly.

Cindy Ng

I actually wanna go back to all the different departments that are involved in addressing the need for preventing data breaches. How would an organization include that in a conversation if they didn’t have the structure for it?

Guy Melamed

Well, the organization first has to understand where the data resides and who has access to the data. And in a recent survey that we published, approximately 50% of the companies have more than a thousand sensitive files open to everyone in the company. That’s an unheard of number. Think about it. If you have one sensitive file, one file that has the full payroll information for an organization, and that file gets to the wrong hands, that can destroy a company, you have a little more than a thousand sensitive files. So, the risk is very significant and approximately 20% of the data on average is open to everyone in the company. That’s a risk a company must take action against. So, step number one is realize where your risk resides and if you don’t have access, and you don’t know who has access to what type of folder, who’s opening the folder, who’s deleting the folder, then you’re blindsided.

So, I think that’s step number one. There’s additional risks that take place on a day to day, and if I’ve given you an example from the finance department, if an employee is on warning, goes through a PIP, and he has access to sensitive information, you wanna make sure that that information that he has access to stays within the company, and that an employee isn’t accessing more and more information in preparation for departure. So, that’s a risk that relates to the finance organization, but relates to so many other departments as well. There’s IP that, you know, personnel within the R&D department wanna make sure is protected. There’s obviously information related to customers and payroll information and HR and legal and the list just goes on and on. So, the desire is first of all just to be able to know what you need to protect and then who’s protecting it, who has access to it and being able to see any abnormal behavior that’s taking place within an organization.

Don’t We Have an Audit Trail?

Cindy Ng

So, you have deep expertise in risk and some technical knowledge. There was a survey among cybersecurity professionals and 41% of them think that their CFOs have a major gap in their technical expertise in risk or they don’t understand their risk at all. You’ve alluded to some of their risk. What is your recommendation to other CFOs or other individuals who wanna improve their knowledge gap? Who should their trusted advisors be?

Guy Melamed

Well, first of all, I don’t think I have deep expertise on the technological side or in understanding risk, but I have been around enough to understand that the biggest gap between the finance department and the IT or security department has to do with misconceptions. And if you ask, and just to give an example, what we see many times that takes place in our selling process, our selling process, for anyone that doesn’t know, is very visual. So, we can talk about risk with our potential customers but a conversation doesn’t get elevated until customers see how vulnerable they are with their own data, and I guess that’s just human nature. Everyone thinks that they’ll be okay until they see how open and how much data is open to everyone in the company and how many sensitive files could be accessed by people that shouldn’t have access to that.

So, one of the examples that we see during a selling process is that if we sit showing that risk assessment or even having an initial conversation with someone from the IT or a CISO, and also with a legal department member or a finance member, and we ask one simple question, “If today, 10,000 files would have been deleted, would you know about it?” The answer from the CISO or from the IT personnel is, “Absolutely not. We don’t have any ability to know if someone deleted 10,000 files.”

But if you ask a finance person or someone from the legal department or an HR personnel, I think the misconception or their automatic reaction would be that there has to be a way and that it seems unreasonable that a company isn’t tracking if 10,000 files got deleted today. That, I believe is one of the gaps that has to be breached and the education from the finance side is making sure that you know what the company’s tracking and what we’re not tracking and if an employee is about to leave, do we have any type of monitoring to make sure that sensitive files aren’t taken and provided to a competitor or are even used in the future by that, what would be an ex-employee later on.

So, there’s a lot of components on the daily operations. There’s a lot of risks that company has to think about and always kind of go through the process of what can go wrong. Maybe it hasn’t happened and maybe everything is good now and we trust all of our employees, but what if? And I think the notion that when you have organizations with 1,000 employees or 20,000 employees or 50,000 employees, the notion that all of the employees are ethical is a bit scary and you have to think how to protect the company in the best way.

Cost of a Data Breach

Cindy Ng

What’s most compelling for me is that there’s a disconnect between IT and the rest of the departments, where IT thinks that, “I really wanna protect everyone’s data, but there’s no ability to do so.”

Meanwhile, finance, legal, and HR, they think, “Oh, hasn’t that problem been already solved? It’s a little unreasonable,” as you’ve said, “if we weren’t able to figure that out.”

So, let’s talk about the cost of a breach. So, it’s been said that the average cost of a data breach is about four million, and there are many organizations that have paid tens of millions of dollars. What are some direct costs and indirect costs to businesses associated with data breaches?

Guy Melamed

So, a data breach, from a quantifiable perspective, depends on what was taken, when it was taken, who was it taken by, and who was it provided to. So, there is a lot of components, and I think it would be very hard for me to throw out a number. But what I would say is that a breach is a disruption to the business in so many levels. It’s a disruption from the sense of finding out what was taken, the risk of that information being provided to your competitors, even the risk of taking financial information and providing it before it was published.

What I would think about is would a CFO, or a COO for that matter, be comfortable with providing their financial statements to a competitor two weeks before they were published? Obviously the answer is, no, and there could be detrimental consequences to that type of breach.

But the breach isn’t just on the financial information. There is customer information, there is payroll information. There’s just so much sensitive file that sits there that people within the organization have access, and it doesn’t necessarily mean that they would break bad. It could be a situation where someone from the outside took control of the credentials of an employee within the organization and starts using that access in the wrong way. So, the notion, and I think what we’ve seen as a company, as one of the most interesting phenomenas, is that some of the breaches that took place in 2014 really generated a knee jerk reaction and there was a significant IT spent during the beginning of 2015. But that spent at the beginning of the year was mostly towards perimeter defense security. The notion was that if you’re protecting the border, you’ll be okay. And I think what’s been proven day in, day out is that perimeter defense security is absolutely important but the notion that that’s the only type of defense that you need has been thrown out the window.

And if you use the same analogy of border patrol or protecting a country, the fact that you have protection on the border doesn’t mean that you don’t have any other measures and any other organizations that protect you from the inside. Because at one point there is gonna be someone that will be able to overcome that border. Not only that, how are you protecting your organization or your country from people from the inside? So, what we’ve seen in the last couple years is that the amount of breaches that have taken place have increased significantly. The magnitude has increased significantly, the implications on those companies has increased significantly.

And I know there was an article a couple years ago that discussed the cost of a breach and how you shouldn’t buy any software and you can just deal with a breach. That notion has been thrown out the window and, you know, it’s obviously that the consequences of a breach that we see it on the news and on the front page of “The Wall Street Journal” and “The Financial Times.” It’s happening in rates that we haven’t seen before and I don’t see that going away.


Continue reading the next post in "[Podcast] Varonis CFO & COO Guy Melamed: Preventing Data Breaches and Reducing Risk"

[Podcast] Dr. Wolter Pieters on Information Ethics, Part Two

[Podcast] Dr. Wolter Pieters on Information Ethics, Part Two


Leave a review for our podcast & we'll send you a pack of infosec cards.

In part two of my interview with Delft University of Technology’s assistant professor of cyber risk, Dr. Wolter Pieters, we continue our discussion on transparency versus secrecy in security.

We also cover ways organizations can present themselves as trustworthy. How? Be very clear about managing expectations. Declare your principles so that end users can trust that you’ll be executing by the principles you advocate. Lastly, have a plan for know what to do when something goes wrong.

And of course there’s a caveat, Wolter reminds us that there’s also a very important place in this world for ethical hackers. Why? Not all security issues can be solved during the design stage.

Transparency versus Secrecy

Wolter Pieters

My name is Wolter Pieters. I have a background in both computer science and philosophy of technology. I’m very much interested in studying cyber security from an angle that either goes a bit more towards the social science, so, why do people behave in certain ways in the cyber security space. But also more towards philosophy and ethics, so, what would be reasons for doing things differently in order to support certain values.

Privacy, but then again, I think privacy is a bit overrated. This is really about power balance. It’s because everything we do in security will give some people access and exclude other people, and that’s a very fundamental thing. It’s basically about power balance that is through security we embed into technology. And that is what fundamentally interests me in relation to security and ethics.

Cindy Ng

How do we live in now world where you just don’t know whether or not organizations or governments are behaving in a way that’s trustworthy?

Wolter Pieters

You know, transparency versus secrecy is a very important debate within the security space. This already starts out very fundamentally from the question like, “Should methods for protecting information be publicly known or should they be kept secret because otherwise we may be giving too much information away to hackers, etc?” So, this is a very fundamental thing and in terms of encryption already, there’s the principle like, “Hey, encryption algorithms should be publicly known because otherwise we can’t even tell how well our information is being protected by means of that encryption and only the keys using encryption should be kept secret.” This is a principle called Kerckhoff’s Principle. This is very old and information in security and a lot of the current encryption algorithms actually adhere to that principle and we’ve also seen encryption algorithms not adhering to that principle.

So, algorithms that were secrets, trade secrets, etc. being broken very moments the algorithm became known. So, in that sense there I think most researchers would agree this is good practice. On the other hand it’s seems that there’s also a certain limit to what we want to be transparent there. Both in terms of security controls, we’re not giving away every single thing governments do in terms of security online. So, there is some level of security by obscurity there and more generally to what extent is transparency a good thing. This again ties in with who is a threat. I mean, we have the whole WikiLeaks endeavor and some people will say, “Well, this is great. The government shouldn’t be keeping all that stuff secret.” So, it’s great for trust that this is now all out in the open. On the other hand, you could argue all this and this is actually a threat to trust in the government. So, this form of transparency would be very bad for trust.

So, there’s clearly a tension there. Some level of transparency may help people trust in the protections embedded in the technology and in the actors that use those technologies online. But on the other hand, if there’s too much transparency all the nitty-gritty details may actually decrease trust. You see this all over the place. We’ve seen it through with the electronic voting as well. If you provide some level of explanation on how certain technologies are being secured, that may help. If you provide too much detail people won’t understand it and it will only increase distrust. There is a kind of golden middle there in terms of how much explanation you should give to make people trust in certain forms of security encryption, etc. And again, in the end people will have to rely on experts because physical forms of security, physical ballot boxes, it’s possible to explain and how these work and how they are being secured with digital that becomes much more complicated and for most people, they will have to trust the judgment of experts that these forms of security are actually good if the experts believe so.

What Trustworthy Organizations Do Differently

Cindy Ng

What’s something an organization can do in order to establish themselves as a trustworthy, morally-sound, ethical organization?

Wolter Pieters

I think the most important thing that companies can do is very clear in terms of managing expectations. So, couple of examples there, if as a company you decide to provide end-to-end encryption for communications. The people that use your or your jet app exchange messages get the assurance that the messages are encrypted between their device and the device of the one that they’re communicating with. And this is a clear statement like, “Hey, we’re doing it this way.” And that also means that then you shouldn’t have any backdoors or means to give this communication away to need the intelligence agencies anyway. Because if this is your standpoint, and people need to be able to trust in that. Similarly, if you are running a social network site and you want people to trust in your policies then you need to be crystal clear.

Not only that it’s possible to change your privacy settings, to regulate the access that other use of the social networking servers have to your data, but at the same time you need to be crystal clear about how you as a social network operator are using the kind of data. Because sometimes I get the big internet companies are offering all kinds of privacy settings which give people the impression that they can do a lot in terms of their privacy but, yes, this is true for the inter user data access but the provider still sees everything. This seems to be a way of framing privacy in terms of inter user data access. Whereas, I think it’s much more fundamental what these companies can do with all the data they gather for all their use and what that means in terms of their power and the position that they get in this whole area of cyberspace this whole arena.

So, managing expectations, I mean, there’s all kinds of different standpoints also based on different ethical theories, based on different political points of view that you could take in this space. If you want to behave ethically then make sure you list your principles, you list what you do in terms of security and privacy to adhere to those principles and make sure that people can actually trust that this is also what you do in practice. And also make sure that you know exactly what you’re going to do in case something goes wrong anyway. We’ve seen too many breaches where the responses by the companies were not quite up to standards in terms of delaying the announcement of the breach or it’s crucial to not only do some prevention in terms of security and privacy but also know what you’re going to do in case something goes wrong.

Doomsday Scenarios

Cindy Ng

Yeah, you say, if an IoT device gets created and they get to market their product first and then they’ll fix security and privacy later, that’s too late. Is it sort of like, “We’re doomed already and we’re just sort of managing the best way we know how?”

Wolter Pieters

In a way, it’s a good thing when we are nervous about where our society is going because in history at moments where people weren’t nervous enough about where society was going, we’ve seen things go terribly wrong. So, in a sense we need to get rid of the illusion that we can easily be in control or something like that because we can’t.

The same for elections, there is no neutral space from which people can cast their vote without being influenced and we’ve seen in recent elections that actually technology is playing more and more of a role in how people perceive political parties and how to make decisions in terms of voting. So, it’s inevitable that technology companies have a role in those elections and that’s also what they need to acknowledge.

And then of course, and I think this is a big question that needs to be asked, “Can we prevent the situation in which the power of certain online stakeholders whether those are companies or are there for a nation state or whatever. Can we prevent a situation in which they get so much power that they are able to influence our governments, either through elections or through other means?” That’s a situation that we really don’t want to be in and I’m not pretending that I have a crystal clear answers there but this is something that at least we should consider as a possible scenario.

And then there’s all these doomsday scenarios with Cyber Pearl Harbor and I’m not sure whether these doomsday scenarios are the best way to think about this but we should also not be naive and think that all of this will blow over because maybe indeed we have already been giving away too much power in a sense. So, what we should do is fundamentally rethink the way we think about security and privacy from, “Oh, damn, my photos are I don’t know whatever, in the hands of whoever.” That’s not the point. It’s about the scale in which the certain actors either get their hands on data or lots of individuals are able to influence lots of individuals. So, again scale comes in there. It’s not about our individual privacy, it’s about the power that these stakeholders get by having access to the data over by being able to influence lots and lots of people and that’s what the debate needs to be about.

Cindy Ng

Whoever has the data has power, is what you’re getting at.

Wolter Pieters

Whoever has the data and in a sense that data can then, again, be used also to influence people in a targeted way. If you know that somebody’s interested in something, you can try to influence their behavior by referring to the thing that they’re interested in.

Cindy Ng

That’s only if you have data integrity.

Wolter Pieters

Yes. Yes, of course. But on the other hand, little bit of noise in the data doesn’t matter too much because if you have data that’s more or less correct, you can still achieve a lot.

Ethical Hackers Have An Important Role

Cindy Ng

Anything that I didn’t touch upon that you think is important for our listeners to know?

Wolter Pieters

The one thing that I think is critically important is the role that ethical hackers can have in keeping people alert, in a way maybe even changing the rules of the game, because in the end I also don’t think that all security issues can be solved in the design of technology and it’s critically important that when technology are being deployed that people keep an eye on issues that may have been overlooked in the design stage of those technologies. We need some people that are paying attention and will be alerting us to issues that may emerge.

Cindy Ng

It’s a scary role to be in though if you’re an ethical hacker because what if the government comes around and accuses you being an unethical hacker?

Wolter Pieters: Yeah. I think that’s an issue but if that’s going to be happening, if people are afraid to play this role because legislation doesn’t protect them enough, then maybe we need to do something about that. If we don’t have people that point us to essential weaknesses in security, then what will happen is that those issues will be kept secret and that they will be misused in ways that we don’t know about and I think that’s much worse situation to be in.


[Podcast] 41% of organizations have at least 1,000 sensitive files open to ...

[Podcast] 41% of organizations have at least 1,000 sensitive files open to all employees


Leave a review for our podcast & we'll send you a pack of infosec cards.

This week, we talk about our annual data risk assessment report and sensitive files open to every employee! 41% of companies are vulnerable to this problem. The latest finding put organizations at risk as unsecure folders give attackers easy access to business roadmaps, intellectual property, financial and health data, and more. We even discussed how data open to everyone in an organization relates to user-generated data shared with 3rd party apps. Is it a data security or privacy problem? At the very least, the panelists think it’s a breach of confidence.

Other articles discussed:

Tool of the Week: Charles, Web Debugging Proxy Application

Panelists: Mike Buckbee, Kilian Englert, Kris Keyser

What Experts Are Saying About GDPR

What Experts Are Saying About GDPR

You did get the the memo that GDPR goes into effect next month?

Good! This new EU regulation has a few nuances and uncertainties that will generate more questions than answers over the coming months. Fortunately, we’ve spoken to many attorneys with deep expertise in GDPR. To help you untangle GDPR, the IOS staff reviewed the old transcripts of our conversations, and pulled out a few nuggets that we think will help you get ready.

Does the GDPR cover US businesses? Is the 72-hour breach notification rule strict? Do you need a DPO?  We have the answers below!  If you have more time, listen to our podcasts for deeper insights.

Privacy By Design Raised the Bar

Inside Out Security: Tell us about GDPR, and its implications on Privacy by Design.

Dr. Ann Cavoukian: For the first time, right now the EU has the General Data Protection Regulation, which passed for the first time, ever. It has the words, the actual words, “Privacy by Design” and “Privacy as the default” in the stature.

What I tell people everywhere that I go to speak is that if you follow the principles of Privacy by Design, which in itself raised the bar dramatically from most legislation, you will virtually be assured of complying with your regulations, whatever jurisdiction you’re in.

Because you’re following the highest level of protection. So that’s another attractive feature about Privacy by Design is it offers such a high level of protection that you’re virtually assured of regulatory compliance, whatever jurisdiction you’re in.


Leave a review for our podcast & we'll send you a pack of infosec cards.

US Businesses Also Need To Prepare for GDPR

Inside Out Security: What are some of the concerns you’re hearing from your clients on GDPR?

Sue Foster: When I speak to my U.S. clients, if they’re a non-resident company that promotes goods or services in the EU, including free services like a free app, for example, they’ll be subject to the GDPR. That’s very clear.

Also, if a non-resident company is monitoring the behavior of people who are located in the EU, including tracking and profiling people based on their internet or device usage, or making automated decisions about people based on their personal data, the company is subject to the GDPR.


Leave a review for our podcast & we'll send you a pack of infosec cards.

Is the 72-hour rule as strict as it sounds?

Inside Out Security:  What we’re hearing from our customers is that the 72-hour breach rule for reporting is a concern. And our customers are confused and after looking at some of the fine print, we are as well!! So I’m wondering if you could explain the breach reporting in terms of thresholds, what needs to happen before a report is made to the DBA’s and consumers?

Sue Foster: So you have to report the breach to the Data Protection Authority as soon as possible, and where feasible, no later than 72 hours after becoming aware of the breach.

How do I know if a breach is likely to ‘result in a risk to the rights and freedoms of natural persons’?

There is actually a document you can look at to tell you what these rights and freedoms are. But you can think of it basically in common sense terms. Are the person’s privacy rights affected, are their rights and the integrity of their communications affected, or is their property affected?

If you decide that you’re not going to report after you go through this full analysis and the DPA disagrees with you, now you’re running the risk of a fine to 2% of the group’s global turnover …or gross revenue around the world.

But for now, and I think for the foreseeable future, it’s going to be about showing your work, making sure you’ve engaged, and that you’ve documented your engagement, so that if something does go wrong, at least you can show what you did.


Leave a review for our podcast & we'll send you a pack of infosec cards.

What To Do When You Discover A Breach

Inside Out Security: What are one the most important things you would do when you discover a breach? I mean if you could prioritize it in any way. How would you advise a customer about how to have a breach response program in a GDPR context?

Sheila FitzPatrick: Yeah. Well first and foremost, you do need to have in place, before a breach even occurs, an incident response team that’s not made up of just the IT. Because normally organizations have an IT focus. You need to have a response team that includes IT, your chief privacy officer. And if the person… normally a CPO would sit in legal. If he doesn’t sit in legally, you want a legal representative in there as well. You need someone from PR, communications that can actually be the public-facing voice for the company. You need to have someone within Finance and Risk Management that sits on there.

So the first thing to do is to make sure you have that group in place that goes into action immediately. Secondly, you need to determine what data has potentially been breached, even if it hasn’t. Because under GDPR, it’s not… previously it’s been if there’s definitely been a breach that can harm an individual. The definition is if it’s likely to affect an individual. That’s totally different than if the individual could be harmed. So you need to determine okay, what data has been breached, and does it impact an individual?

So, as opposed to if company-related information was breached, there’s a different process you go through. Individual employee or customer data has been breached, the individual, is it likely to affect them? So that’s pretty much anything. That’s a very broad definition. If someone gets a hold of their email address, yes, that could affect them. Someone could email them who is not authorized to email them.

So, you have to launch into that investigation right away and then classify the data that has been any intrusion into the data, what that data is classified as.

Is it personal data?

Is it personal sensitive data?

And then rank it based on is it likely to affect an individual?

Is it likely to impact an individual? Is it likely to harm an individual?

So there could be three levels.

Based on that, what kind of notification? So if it’s likely to affect or impact an individual, you would have to let them know. If it’s likely to harm an individual, you absolutely have to let them know and the data protection authorities know.


Leave a review for our podcast & we'll send you a pack of infosec cards.

Do we need to hire a DPO?

Inside Out Security: An organization must appoint a data protection officer (“DPO”) if, among other things, “the core activities” of the organization require “regular and systematic monitoring of data subjects on a large scale.”  Many Varonis customers are in the B2B space, where they do not directly market to consumers. Their customer lists are perhaps in the tens of thousands of recipients up to the lower six-figure range. First, does the GDPR apply to personal data collected from individuals in a B2B context? And second, how when does data processing become sufficiency “large scale” to require the appointment of a DPO?

Bret Cohen and Sian Rudgard with Hogan Lovells: Yes, the GDPR applies to personal data collected from individuals in a B2B context (e.g., business contacts).  The GDPR’s DPO requirement, however, is not invoked through the maintenance of customer databases.

The DPO requirement is triggered when the core activities of an organization involve regular and systematic monitoring of data subjects on a large scale, or the core activities consist of large scale processing of special categories of data (which includes data relating to health, sex life or sexual orientation, racial or ethnic origin, political opinions, religious or philosophical beliefs, trade union membership, or biometric or genetic data).

“Monitoring” requires an ongoing tracking of the behaviors, personal characteristics, or movements of individuals, such that the controller can ascertain additional details about those individuals that it would not have known through the discrete collection of information.

Therefore, from what we understand of Varonis’ customers’ activities, it is unlikely that a DPO will be required, although this is another area on which we can expect to see guidance from the DPAs, particularly in the European Member States where having a DPO is an existing requirement (such as Germany).

Whether or not a company is required to appoint a DPO, if the company will be subject to the GDPR, it will still need to be able to comply with the “Accountability” record-keeping requirements of the Regulation and demonstrate how it meets the required standards. This will involve designating a responsible person or team to put in place and maintain appropriate  policies and procedures , including data privacy training programs.


[Podcast] Varonis Track at RSA 2018

[Podcast] Varonis Track at RSA 2018


Leave a review for our podcast & we'll send you a pack of infosec cards.

We’re all counting down to the RSA Conference  in San Francisco April 16 – 20, where you can connect with the best technology, trends and people that will protect our digital world.

Attendees will receive a Varonis branded baseball hat and will be entered into a $50 gift card raffle drawing for listening to our presentation in our North Hall booth (#3210).

Attendees that visit us in the South Hall (#417) will receive a car vent cell phone holder.

In addition to stopping by our booth, below are sessions you should consider attending. You’ll gain important insights into best security practices and data breach prevention tips, while learning how to navigate a constantly evolving business climate.

Sessions Discussed:

Panelists: Mike Thompson, Kilian Englert, Kris Keyser

[Podcast] I’m Elena Khasanova, Professional Services Manager at Varonis, ...

[Podcast] I’m Elena Khasanova, Professional Services Manager at Varonis, and This is How I Work


Leave a review for our podcast & we'll send you a pack of infosec cards.

Prior to Varonis, Elena Khasanova worked in backend IT for large organizations. She did a bit of coding, database administration, project management, but was ready for more responsibility and challenges.

So seven years ago, she made the move to New York City from Madison, Wisconsin and joined the professional services department at Varonis.

With limited experience speaking with external customers and basic training, Varonis entrusted her to deploy products as well as present to customers. Elena recalls, “Not every company will give you a chance to talk to external customers without prior experience….But it was Varonis that gave me that chance.”

According to her manager, Ken Spinner:

Over the last 6 years, I’ve had the pleasure of working with Elena, first as a coworker in different departments, and most recently as the leader of our Remediation Team in our Professional Services department.  Elena was uniquely qualified to lead the team as she had significant experience performing project management prior to planning and completing our first remediation projects.  Elena’s knowledge was instrumental in defining the essence of the Varonis  Data Risk Assessment, the process used by PS to perform remediation, as well as providing practical insight to Engineering during the development of the Automation Engine.

Read on to learn more about Elena – this time, in her own words.

What would people never guess you do in your role?

Not only am I involved in professional services, I also spend a lot of time on sales calls.

What did you learn about yourself after working at Varonis?

I am pretty good at selling concepts and ideas.

How has Varonis helped you in your career development?

Prior to Varonis, I only worked in internal IT. Varonis gave me a chance to work with external customers and exposed me to sales and product management.

What advice do you have for prospective candidates?

Pour your heart and soul into Varonis products. If you are smart and hard-working, it will be noticed right away.

What do you like most about the company? 

Despite being a publicly traded company, it kept its startup spirit and passion.

What’s the biggest data security problem your customers/prospects are faced with?

Company files are often accessible by every employee regardless of their roles. How can we fix that without someone losing access to work they really need access to?

What certificates do you have?


What is your favorite book?

Big Magic by Elizabeth Gilbert

What is your favorite time hack?

I assign values in my to-do list by urgency: important (not always urgent but is important in the long run), speed and reluctance.

Things I’m most reluctant to do, I try to do in the beginning of the day when my willpower is still high.

What’s your favorite quote?

“It would not be much of a universe if it wasn’t home to the people you love.”

– by the greatest scientist, Stephen Hawking


Elena Khasanova: My name is Elena Khasanova, and I’m currently a Professional Services Manager at Varonis. And this is how I work.

Cindy Ng: How long have you been working at Varonis?

Elena Khasanova: It will be seven years in June. So, pretty long time.

Cindy Ng: And what was your background prior to working at Varonis?

Elena Khasanova: Prior to Varonis, I worked for fairly large-sized organizations. I would say, on the customer side. So I worked IT in back-end IT. And my customers were the internal teams, internal departments, and my coworkers. I worked in both a very technical disciplines, I did some coding, I did some database administration, and then I switched towards project management and geared more and more towards IT security area of overall IT. And then, I ended up taking a bunch of the Microsoft certificates and CISSP certifications. So I became a bit of an expert on projects within IT security industry.

Cindy Ng: And you’ve gotten certificates, you’ve held many different roles. How did you end up deciding that Varonis was a good fit for you?

Elena Khasanova: So, at that point, prior to Varonis, I actually lived in Wisconsin for eight years. And Madison, Wisconsin, to be precise. And that town or city was getting pretty small for me, and I wanted to work for a smaller company and also the one that sells IT as a service. So I wanted to be on the front-end of the revenue. Not quite in sales, but yet working with external customers.

You know, not every company will give you a chance to go and talk to external customers without prior experience. There is more on the line when working with external customers.

While working with internal customers, of course, you need to deliver to the highest level of satisfaction, but nevertheless, it’s your coworkers. If you serve HR team as an IT team, HR team does not have an ability to go to another vendor, right, to another IT team. You don’t compete with another IT team. So you kind of have this internal monopoly in delivering the services.

If you work with external customers, the external customers, it’s real revenue on the line, so it’s not just internal transfer of, you know, company budgets between departments. It’s real money on the line that do support the company and the shareholders. Customers, of course, always have a choice to go with somebody else.

So, I think there’s so much more at stake when dealing with external customers. Then, you know, the risks, and therefore, the rewards are so much more elevated.

So, one day, a recruiter from New York City called me and said, “Oh, this is a little bit of a more technical position, but this is exactly what you wanted, so give it a try.” And I had an interview over the phone, and they flew me in. And I was amazed that Varonis, immediately after a brief training, trusted me enough to go and deploy our product and train our customers and interact with very large companies on behalf of Varonis.

Varonis gave me a chance, and I really, actually, enjoyed it. And I think I, a bit surprised, even myself, that how much fun I had. Right now I can put on my resume very expansive experience working with external customers, but it was Varonis that gave me that chance and exposed me to this area. I mean, I loved it from day one. Like I said, it’s been almost seven years now and I’m still here and still loving it.

Cindy Ng: That’s great. So, you’re involved in professional services at Varonis. What does professional services entail, and what was the catalyst to create the professional services department at Varonis?

Elena Khasanova: Right now, professional services perform such a wide variety of tasks. It was not always the case. It started as a supplement to the support department. Varonis support department existed from the very beginning of the company’s existence, and if customers had issues, they would call or email support team and deal with them. However, at some point, it was clear that it was not sufficient to just give the customer instructions on how to install the products and then have them deal with support as needed to be.

So, the first person was hired to create, you know, one team, professional services department that rapidly grew, based on the customers’ needs, into the team specializing in the initial installation and training for the customers. Lately, other technical tasks were added, such as upgrades or migrations as the customers needed to move from one service to another.

At some point, the customers asked us to do more reporting on the issues within the environment. The issues with data permissions. So that was added to the list of tasks that professional services performed.

And then later, the customers started asking us to not only report on the issues, but actually fix them. And that’s when the remediation services branch was born.

So, it was very organic growth. It was very much driven by customer demands. And as well, it was driven by our customers becoming larger and bigger enterprise companies. And as we’ve had more and more international companies around the world, there was a need to provide more than just installation services, but, you know, do project management, as well, and do business analysis and other things, as well.

So, at this point, we do anything from simple installation to very large wide-scale rollouts around the world, as well as perform even multi-year engagements, very wide variety of projects and engagements. And some of them could be very large.

Cindy Ng: So professional services is wide in scope. So, are you engaged with other teams within Varonis to coordinate?

Elena Khasanova: As we collect more and more feedback from the field, and as professional services department itself is reaching, I believe, seven years of age, we interact more and more with other teams to make sure that the feedback from the field goes back into, for example, product management. Product management is one of our biggest collaborators here in Varonis. So, we provide feedback from the customers as well as feedback from professional services on how to make the product more stable, more customer-friendly, more user-friendly, and to shape the future of the product.

Other teams are sales, of course. I personally spend up to 30% of my time on sales calls, because some of the remediation engagements are fairly large and complex and it helps to have somebody on the call to talk to the customer about the best practices, the pitfalls to avoid, and so on and so forth. It’s just, for sales, it’s hard to have that level of experience and interactions from previous projects, so it helps to have a professional services representative on a call or we even go on-site to help sales close the deal.

Cindy Ng: How would you break down your day?

Elena Khasanova: So, it’s about 25% with sales, about 15% with product management and marketing, I think, and that left 60% of pure project management with professional services.

Cindy Ng: The term “remediation” is thrown around a lot. What exactly is it…?

Elena Khasanova: From Varonis’ perspective, it’s remediation of data access. The reason why companies need it is that at almost every external breach, at some point, becomes an internal breach. So, companies surround themselves with heavy layers of firewalls, and they secure their perimeter as best as they can. However, with so many companies outsourcing and subcontracting so many IT activities to other vendors, as well as those vendors, in turn, subcontracted to more and more vendors, it’s almost impossible to fully protect internal data via a firewall.

Once somebody, whether it’s a malicious employee or malware, can get inside the company and they start accessing data they shouldn’t be accessing, that breach spreads internally like water to a Titanic compartments. And this is why companies need to secure the internal data in addition to securing the perimeter.

And this is our term “remediation” that we use, it’s to secure data within those compartments inside the company. So if there is a breach, that breach will be limited to that compartment and will not, say, impact the operational areas of the company and…

Cindy Ng: And, how would customers know if their internal permissions are overexposed? So, for instance, if all finance folders are open to everyone in the organization, there’s a huge disconnect. So I think C-levels, they think that, and correct me if I’m wrong, that they probably already think that problems have already been corrected and it’s not really an issue because if we’ve been able to create so much amazing technology that that problem is no longer an issue. Meanwhile, IT is like, you know, If you do it manually, if you try to fix global group access, that is a very hard problem to fix.

Elena Khasanova: So, you’re very correct on this one, that not only it’s hard to fix, but many customers are not even aware that there is a problem in the environment to begin with. We actually call it “turning the light in the basement to discover dead bodies there” because most native operating systems do not actually provide any interface or any information on the exposure of data internally. And it’s actually really tough without a specialized product such as Varonis to even see that unless you’re thinking there is a problem and you actually create some kind of scripts to, you know, scan your internal permissions. But if you don’t know there is a problem, you don’t know what you don’t know, so you don’t even think about that, so you’re looking at other areas.

I love the shocking look on customers’ face when we perform our risk assessment. So we can really quickly scan the environment, and within 48 hours produce amazing wealth of information to the customers. And I love going to customers’ meetings and showing them that, “Look, 40% of your data is exposed to everyone in the company. Oh, and you have 20,000 accounts in your company, and any one of these accounts can access 40% of your data. Did you know that?”

We even ask the customers to write the numbers on a paper and just kind of as a bet. Not a bet, maybe, but just to, again, to show the gap between the perception and the reality that, “Hey, how many photos do you think are exposed to everyone?” And the customers, I mean, virtually every time would say, I don’t know, 4, 5, maybe 10, and 50. And then we run the scan and turns out it’s 50,000.

Cindy Ng: What about prospects, that think that they can write a script?

Elena Khasanova: Well, so a script, technically, maybe could be written, but because our product is optimized for this and we’ve been doing it for now more than 10 years, we will scan even a very large environment within matter of 48 hours. While a manual script, it could take it months to go through each and every folder and collect those permissions, and then report them in a meaningful manner.

We have a beautiful interface, we can immediately, you know, show you the pie charts, and all the graphics, and trends. And it’s really beautiful and you can click around and play around with it. You can drill down, come back out, and so on and so forth. Even if you write a script, and it takes that script months to scan the permissions, it will be just a huge text log file that will be really hard to differentiate between different departments, different company branches. Again, drill down, come back out of it, and so on and so forth.

So we’re just giving you such a good interface and everything at a glance, and our product re-scans it constantly, so if there are any changes, permissions get changed, we will immediately produce a snapshot of that.

Cindy Ng: Let’s go back to the finance folder that’s open to everyone. So, if I remove that ability where the finance folders are removed, the global group access, which steps if any, do I need to take?

Elena Khasanova: So, removing access from everyone is an excellent first step. And how we do it is we look at the activity in the back-end. And if an account, whether it’s individual account or a service account, had any activity, we will keep that account access while disconnecting the Everyone group. In many cases, that is enough. However, if it’s true sensitive data and, you know, I would argue that all the data is sensitive, right, if it comes to that. However, the software itself cannot differentiate between legitimate and illegitimate access and only human eyes can.

We’ve had situations where we had somebody running a so-called crawler from their workstation and that software would just go and hit every server open and try to scan what’s inside. As a result of it, it produced a lot of activity. So when we performed automatic removal of the group Everyone, it kept that account because the account had activity.

So, with the next step of the access certification that is performed by a human data owner, we would have never been able to actually expose that account and say that, “Look, why is this account in this group? Why did it have any activity to begin with? It should have never been able to perform that.”

So the second step of a human access re-certification, which we call entitlement review, really takes down the access to the state of list privilege. So you need both steps. One is automatic software removal and then human entitlement review.

Cindy Ng: If you’re a company, you have data and you feel like the data keeps growing and there’s not enough IT staff, what are your recommendations for that company?

Elena Khasanova: We recommend handing off a lot of that responsibility and accountability on who should be accessing data to so-called data owners. Those are the people from the business side who know what type of data is inside and who should be having access to it. For it’s not feasible for the IT department to know, especially in mid and large-sized companies, to know exactly who should be having access to each folder. “Should Mary be having access to finance, stocks or bonds folder or not? Or, maybe, Mary, you know, moved positions or maybe now current job description changed slightly and she no longer needs to have that access.” Only business owners know that.

And so, our recommendation is… And it seems like more and more customers not only buy into that, but actually come to us asking to implement this. So, our recommendation is to define data owners for all of your data, even outside of IT, and then implement some kind of process, very user-friendly process that allows data owners, within minutes, to make decisions on who should and should not be having access to the data.

Cindy Ng: And when it comes to stale data, what are your recommendations?

Elena Khasanova: With stale data, we try to follow company policies. First of all, as long as you’re actually doing something with stale data, you’re already doing well. The potential actions that could be applied to stale data are data quarantine. So we strip out all the permissions and maybe, potentially, only storage team or only internal audit has access to it. You can move it into cheaper storage. So, maybe it will be a bit slower for your customers and applications, but nobody’s accessing it anyway, so you’re just keeping it there. And it costs less for the company. Or you just delete it.

Cindy Ng: So, but if you’re in an organization that doesn’t care about the cost of storage, why would it be worth figuring out what to do with stale data?

Elena Khasanova: Cost of storage is only one of the aspects that comes into decisions of what to do with stale data. And, by the way, when you think about that, the cost of storage is not just active data that sits on a disk, but also the countless backups, and often, data duplication that also costs the company money.

However, let’s say that’s not a factor. Stale data could be an area of risk to the company because it creates liability. If you remember a case with Sony when emails from more than 10 years ago resurfaced with Angelina Jolie being, you know, called some names, and that cost the company a loss of reputation as well as the actress will never now do business with Sony, those are the liability issues that should drive a company to deleting the stale data the moment it passed the regulation period of retaining it.

You just simply don’t know what’s stored in there. And if there’s a lawsuit and you’re subpoenaed, you will have to present all the data stored on your company’s servers. Now, if it was deleted, and then you cannot and you don’t have to actually present it. Of course, you have to retain it, I’m sure your legal department knows for X number of months or years, but past that period, too many companies just continue keeping that data, and again, it just represents a liability issue from that perspective.

Cindy Ng: GDPR is coming up and I’m wondering if you’re getting any questions about that.

Elena Khasanova: GDPR is an interesting regulation because in U.S., many companies still don’t think they fall under its jurisdiction. GDPR covers any company that has at least one customer or one employee with a EU citizenship.

So, I’ve been to the meetings with customers, in U.S., where we would bring up GDPR and we would hear back that, “Oh, no, we are not impacted. We don’t have any customers or employees that have that citizenship.” And then a person, literally in the meeting, like, just raised his hand and said, “I have a dual passport. I am an EU citizen.”

So, it was just kind of very funny to see that, but at the same time, I think we need to do more awareness training to demonstrate to U.S. companies that they simply may not know, but it’s actually very likely. If you are a large U.S. company, even if you don’t do business specifically in the European Union, if you are big enough, it’s very likely that one of your employees or customers does have that citizenship, and then you will fall under the umbrella coverage of GDPR.

Also, it’s very important to know that how strict GDPR is and how severe the penalties are. And, I think, again, while in Europe, many companies scramble to make sure that they are ready for the rollout in May, but U.S. companies, for them, it’s still something on a back burner or something that they’re not actively thinking about. So, it’d be interesting to see this transition.

Cindy Ng: You’ve been working in the InfoSec space for a long time. A lot of people say that InfoSec is really just about compliance and dismiss the potential value of security.

Elena Khasanova: What we see is more and more companies that do not consider themselves IT companies do actually become IT companies in a way that so much of their business is built on technology, working well, being stable, you know without having downtimes and so on and so forth. And then, with that comes security. I mean, you hear a lot now about Facebook and how well or not well they actually kept customers’ data. So, that makes more and more companies on business-level, on CEO levels think about, “Okay, how is my IT working? And how, do we have backups? Do we have some redundant network that if outage happens that the airline will continue to function? And how secure is that with so many companies being hit with data security breaches recently?”
And finally, we see CEOs actually losing jobs because of that.

I think the role of InfoSec being so elevated, and now, InfoSec representatives participate in very high-level business discussions, because, otherwise, if you ignore that, you will have impact to your core business.

Cindy Ng: So it sounds like you’ve been keeping really busy with lots of data breaches and fixing global group access. Outside of work, what do you enjoy doing?

Elena Khasanova: I, jokingly, actually say on my LinkedIn profile if somebody just reminded me that I bore people to death at parties with the security data, security conversations. And maybe, yes, that does happen. So I also love to travel around the world. And I used to travel a lot more before I had the kids, but we are trying to involve our kids. Well, I have one, a toddler, 16 year old, 16 months old, sorry, and one on the way. Very little, but she already has her global entry and she’s been on, I think, 12 flights now. So, yes, we actually had to take her to airports for clearance interview with immigration officials and she did very well. So she can now bypass the immigration lines on the entry to the country. And so yeah, we hope to kind of maintain, somewhat, our travel lifestyle.

I used to travel so much, I actually ran out of international, all the space in the passport within two years of getting it and I had to send it back to the officials to add more pages.

Cindy Ng: What were the last three places you went to?

Elena Khasanova: So, the last three places. We just went to Bermuda with the whole family. And before that, we went to Guadeloupe, which is French West Indies that were not on my radar until “Wall Street Journal” ran an article about it. And Norwegian Airlines actually opened a direct flight there. I highly recommend it. It’s one of those areas that doesn’t have any five-star resort hotels, but it’s a great place to go and in four hours, from New York City anyways, you’ll be there. And prior to that, it was probably… Oh, it was Scotland. Also, actually, a new country for me, but I went there for work. Every time I go for work, I do try to sneak out and find some few hours to at least go, maybe, for a walk or hike or explore a castle like I did in Scotland. So that was a lot of fun.

Cindy Ng: Oh, beautiful. Yeah, I hear the landscapes there are gorgeous. Sounds like you’ve had a very rewarding career thus far, and I wish you much success.

Elena Khasanova: Thank you very much.

Support for the Inside Out Security Show and the following message come from Varonis. A Varonis Data Risk Assessment doesn’t take long. A 90 min software install lets you map access to your directory services, classify files to discover what’s sensitive, and start monitoring and analyzing user behavior. If you want to turn on the lights Varonis can help. Visit and get a free data risk assessment.

[Podcast] Dr. Wolter Pieters on Information Ethics, Part One

[Podcast] Dr. Wolter Pieters on Information Ethics, Part One


Leave a review for our podcast & we'll send you a pack of infosec cards.

In part one of my interview with Delft University of Technology’s assistant professor of cyber risk, Dr. Wolter Pieters, we learn about the fundamentals of ethics as it relates to new technology, starting with the trolley problem. A thought experiment on ethics, it’s an important lesson in the world of self-driving cars and the course of action the computer on wheels would have to take when faced with potential life threatening consequences.

Wolter also takes us through a thought track on the potential of power imbalances when some stakeholders have a lot more access to information than others. That led us to think, is technology morally neutral? Where and when does one’s duty to prevent misuse begin and end?


Wolter Pieters: My name is Wolter Pieters. I have a background in both computer science and philosophy of technology. I’m very much interested in studying cyber security from an angle that either goes a bit more towards the social science, so, why do people behave in certain ways in the cyber security space. But also more towards philosophy and ethics, so, what would be reasons for doing things differently in order to support certain values.

Privacy, but then again, I think privacy is a bit overrated. This is really about power balance. It’s because everything we do in security will give some people access and exclude other people, and that’s a very fundamental thing. It’s basically about power balance that is through security we embed into technology. And that is what fundamentally interests me in relation to security and ethics.

Cindy Ng: Let’s go back first and start with philosophical, ethical, and moral terminology. The trolley problem: it’s where you’re presented two dilemmas, where you’re the conductor and you see the trolley is going down a track and it has the potential to kill five people. But then if you pull a lever, you can make the trolley go on the other track where it would kill one person. And that really is about: what is the most ethical choice and what does ethics mean?

Wolter Pieters: Right. So, ethics generally deals with protecting values. And values, basically, refer to things that we believe are worthy of protection. So, those can be anything from health, privacy, biodiversity. And then it’s said that some values can be fundamental, others can be instrumental in the sense that they only help to support other values, but they’re not intrinsically worth something in and of themselves.

Ethics aims to come up with rules, guidelines, principles that help us support those values in what we do. You can do this in different ways. You can try to look only at the consequences of your actions. And in this case, clearly, in relation to the trolley problem, it’s better to kill one person than to kill five. If you simply do the calculation, you know, you could say, “Well, I pull the switch and thereby reduce the total consequences.” But you could also argue that certain rules state like you shall not kill someone, which would be violated in case you pull the switch. I mean, if you don’t do something, then five people would be killed. Then you don’t do something explicitly, whereas you would pull the switch you would explicitly kill someone. And from that angle, you could argue that you should not pull the switch.

So, this is very briefly an outline of different ways in which you could reason about what actions would be appropriate in order to support certain values, in this case, life and death. Now, this trolley problem is these days often cited in relation to self-driving cars, which also would have to make decisions about courses of action, trying to minimize certain consequences, etc. So, that’s why this has become very prominent in the ethics space.

Cindy Ng: So, you’ve talked about a power in balance. Can you elaborate on and provide an example on what that means?

Wolter Pieters: What we see in cyberspace is that there are all kinds of actors, stakeholders that gather lots of information. There’s governments being interested in doing types of surveillance in order to catch the terrorist amongst the innocent data traffic. There is content providers that give us all kinds of nice services, but at the same time, we pay with our data, and they make profiles out of it and offers targeted advertisements and, etc. And at some point, some companies may be able to do better predictions than even our governments can do. So, what does that mean? In the Netherlands, today actually, there’s a referendum regarding new powers for the intelligence agencies to do types of surveillance online, so there’s a lot of discussion about that.

So, on the one hand, we all agree that we should try to prevent terrorism, etc. On the other hand, this is also a relatively easy argument to claim access to data, they’re like, “Hey, we can’t allow these terrorists attacks, so we need all your data.” It’s very political. And this also makes it possible to kind of leverage security as an argument to claim access to all kinds of things.

Cindy Ng: I’ve been drawn to ethics and the dilemma of our technology, and because I work at a data security company, you learn about privacy regulations, GDPR, HIPAA, SOX compliance. And at the core, they are about ethics and a moral standard of behavior. And can you address the tension between ethics and technology?

And the best thing I read lately was Bloomberg’s subhead that said that ethics don’t scale. When ethics is such a core value, but at the same time, technology is sort of what drives economies, and then add an element of a government to overseeing it all.

Wolter Pieters: There’s a couple of issues here. One is that’s often cited is that ethics and law seem to be lagging behind compared to our technological achievements. We always have to wait for new technology to kind of get out of hand before we start thinking about ethics and regulation. So, in a way, you could argue that’s the case for internet of things type developments where manufacturers of products have been making their products smart for quite a while now. And we suddenly realized that all of these things have security vulnerabilities, and they and they can become part of botnets of cameras that can then be used to do distributed denial of attacks on our websites, etc. And only now are we starting to think about what is needed to make sure that these and other things, devices are securable at some level. Can they be updated? Can they be patched? In a way, it already seems to be too late. So, it is the argument then that is lagging behind.

On the other hand, there’s also the point that ethics and norms are always in a way embedded in technologies. And again, in the security space, whatever way you design technology, it will always enable certain kinds of access, and it will disable other kinds of access. So, there’s always this inclusion, exclusion going on with new digital technologies. So, in that sense, increasingly, ethics is always already present in a technology. And I’m not sure whether ethics, whether it should be said that ethics doesn’t scale. Maybe the problem is rather that it scales too well in the sense that, when we design a piece of technology, we can’t really imagine how things are going to work out if the technology is being used by millions of people. So, this holds for a lot of these elements.

And then the internet when it was designed, it was never conceived as a tool that would be used by billions. It was kind of a network for research purposes to exchange data and everything. So, same for Facebook. It was never designed as a platform for an audience like this, which means that, in a sense, that the norms that are initially being embedded into those technologies do scale. And if, for example, for the internet, you don’t embed security in it from the beginning and then you scale it up, then it becomes much more difficult to change it later on. So, ethics does scale, but maybe not in the way that we want it to scale.

Cindy Ng: So, you mentioned Facebook. And Facebook is not the only tech company that design systems to allow data to flow through so many third parties, and when people use that data in a nefarious way, the tech company can respond to say, you know, “It’s not a data breach. It’s how things were designed to work and people misused it.” Why does that response feel so unsettling? I also like what you said in the paper you wrote that we’re tempted to consider technology as morally neutral.

Wolter Pieters: There’s always this idea of technology being kind of a hammer, right? I need a hammer to drive in the nail and so, it’s just a tool. Now, information flow technology has been discussed for a while that there will always be some kind of side effects. And we’ve learned that technologies pollute the environment, technologies cause safety hazards, nuclear incidents etc., etc. And in all of these cases, when something goes wrong, there are people who designed the technology or operate the technology who could potentially be blamed for these things going wrong.

Now, in the security space, we’re dealing with intentional behavior of third parties. So, they can be hackers, they can be people who misuse the technology. And then suddenly it becomes very easy for those designing or operating the technology to point to those third parties as the ones to blame. You know, like, “Yeah. We just provide the platform. They misused it. It’s not our fault.” But the point is, if you follow that line of reasoning, you wouldn’t need to do any kind of security. Just say, “Well, I made a technology that has some useful functions,” and, yes, then there’s these bad guys that misuse my functionality.”

On the one hand, it seems natural to kind of blame the bad guys or the misusers of whatever. On the other hand, if you only follow that line of reasoning, then nobody would need to do any kind of security. So, this means that you can’t really get away with that argument in general. Then, of course, with specific cases, and then it becomes more of a gray area, where does your duty to prevent misuse stop? And then you get into the area, okay, what is an acceptable level of protection security?

But also, of course, there’s the business models of these companies involve giving access to some parties, which the end users may not be fully aware of. And this has to do with security always being about who are the bad guys? Who are the threats? And some people have different ideas about who the threats are than others. So, if a company gets a request from the intelligence services like, “Hey, we need your data because we would like to investigate this suspect.” Is that acceptable or maybe some people see that as a threat as well. So, the labeling of who are the threats? Are the terrorists the threats? Are the intelligence agencies the threats? Are the advertising companies the threats? This all matters in terms of what you would consider acceptable or not from a security point of view.

Within that space, it is often not very transparent to people what could or could not be done with the data. And then the European legislation is trying, in particular, to require consent of people in order to process their data in certain kinds of ways. Now that, in principle, seems like a good idea. In practice, consent is often given without paying too much attention to the exact privacy policies etc., because people can’t be bothered to read all of that. And in a sense, maybe that’s the rational decision because it would take too much time.

So, that also means that, if we try to solve these problems by letting individuals give consent to certain ways of processing their data, this may lead us to a situation where individually, everybody would just click away the messages because for them it’s rational like, “Hey, I want this service and I don’t have time to be bothered with all these legal stuff.” But on a societal level, we are creating a situation where indeed certain stakeholders in the internet get a lot of power because they have a lot of data. This is the space in which decisions are being made.

Cindy Ng: We rely on technology. A lot of people use Facebook. We can’t just say goodbye to IoT devices. We can’t say goodbye to Facebook. We can’t say goodbye to any piece of technology because as you’ve said, in one of your papers, that technology will profoundly change people’s lives, and our society. Instead of saying goodbye to this wonderful thing that we’ve created or things, how do we go about living our lives and conducting ourselves with integrity, with good ethics, and morals?

Wolter Pieters: Yeah. That’s a good question. So, what currently seems to be happening is that, indeed, a lot of this responsibility is being allocated to the end users. Like, you decide whether you want to join social media platforms or not. You decide what to share there. You decide whether to communicate with end-to-end encryption or not, etc., etc. So, this means that a lot of pressure is being put on individuals make those kinds of choices.

And the fundamental question is whether that approach makes sense, whether that approach scales, because the more technologies people are using, the more decisions they will have to make about how to use these kinds of technologies. Now, of course, there are certain basic principles that you can try to adhere to when doing your stuff online. But on the security sides, watch out of phishing emails, use strong passwords etc., etc. On the privacy side, don’t share stuff off from other people that they haven’t agreed to etc., etc.

But all of that requires quite a bit of effort on the side of the individual. And at the same time, there seems to be pressure to share more and more and more stuff even…and, for example, pictures of children that aren’t even able to consent to whether they want their pictures posted or not. So, it’s, in a sense, there’s a high moral demand on users, maybe too high. And that’s a great question.

In terms of acting responsibly online, now, if at some point you would decide that we’re putting too high a demand on those users, and the question is like, “Okay, are there possible ways to make it easier for people to act responsibly?” And then you would end up with certain types of regulation that don’t only delegate responsibility back to individuals, like, for example, asking consent, but putting really very strict rules on what, in principle, is allowed or not.

Now, that’s a very difficult debate because you usually end up also in accusations of paternalism, like, “Hey, you’re putting all kinds of restrictions on what can or cannot be done online.” But why shouldn’t people be able to decide for themselves? For instance, on the other hand, people being overloaded with decisions to the extent that it becomes impossible for them to make those decisions responsibly. This, on the one hand, leaving all kinds of decisions to the individual versus making some decisions on a collective level that’s gonna be a very fundamental issue in the future.

Data Integrity: What is it and How Can You Maintain it?

data integrity hero

If your company’s data is altered or deleted, and you have no way of knowing how, when and by whom, it can have a major impact on data-driven business decisions. This is why data integrity is essential. To understand the importance of data integrity to a company’s bottom line, let us examine what it is, why it’s significant, and how to preserve it.

What is Data Integrity?

Data integrity refers to the reliability and trustworthiness of data throughout its lifecycle. It can describe the state of your data—e.g., valid or invalid—or the process of ensuring and preserving the validity and accuracy of data. Error checking and validation, for example, are common methods for ensuring data integrity as part of a process.

What is the Difference Between Data Integrity and Data Security?

Data integrity is not to be confused with data security. Data security refers to the protection of data, while data integrity refers to the trustworthiness of data.

Data security focuses on how to minimize the risk of leaking intellectual property, business documents, healthcare data, emails, trade secrets, and more. Some data security tactics include permissions management, data classification, identity and access management, threat detection, and security analytics.

Why is it Important to Maintain Data Integrity?

Imagine making an extremely important business decision hinging on data that is entirely, or even partially, inaccurate. Organizations routinely make data-driven business decisions, and data without integrity, those decisions can have a dramatic effect on the company’s bottom line goals.

A new report from KPMG International reveals that a large majority of senior executives don’t have a high level of trust in the way their organization uses data, analytics, or AI.

data integrity statistics

Only 35% say they have a high level of trust in the way their organization uses data and analytics. 92% are concerned about the negative impact of data and analytics on an organization’s reputation. What’s more, 62% of senior executives said technology functions, not the C-level and functional areas, bear responsibility when a machine or an algorithm goes wrong.

Organizations need to go through the motions of preserving data integrity in order for C-level executives to make proper business decisions.

Data Integrity Threats

Data integrity can be compromised through human error or, worse yet, through malicious acts. Data that’s accidentally altered during the transfer from one device to another, for example, can be compromised, or even destroyed by hackers.
Common threats that can alter the state of data integrity include:

  • Human error
  • Unintended transfer errors
  • Misconfigurations and security errors
  • Malware, insider threats, and cyberattacks
  • Compromised hardware

So how do you know when your data has integrity? You have to look at the following features:

Retrievability and accessibility – It’s important to have accurate data in the proper locations at the right time when anyone is working on projections, a deal, or presentation. Without proper and easy access and retrieval, it can be detrimental to the business, yielding the way for your competition to win.

Traceability –Today, you can trace every touchpoint you make with a prospect or customer. How? With a data point. The data can inform decision makers, highlight red flags, deficiencies, or limitations. Make sure these touchpoints are accurate.

Reliability – Having reliable, consistent business metrics against company goals and the competition is what will take an organization to the top.

How to Preserve Data Integrity [Checklist]

data integrity checklist

The data integrity threats listed above also highlight an aspect of data security that can help preserve data integrity. Use the following checklist to preserve data integrity and minimize risk for your organization:

  1. Validate Input: When your data set is supplied by a known or unknown source (an end-user, another application, a malicious user, or any number of other sources) you should require input validation. That data should be verified and validated to ensure that the input is accurate.
  2. Validate Data: It’s critical to certify that your data processes haven’t been corrupted. Identify specifications and key attributes that are important to your organization before you validate the data.
  3. Remove Duplicate Data: Sensitive data from a secure database can easily find a home on a document, spreadsheet, email, or in shared folders where employees without proper access can see it. It’s prudent to clean up stray data and remove duplicates.

Smaller companies without a dedicated staff will find that these tools can assist them clean up duplicate files on a hard drive or cloud.

For Windows Servers: Use the Data Deduplication feature to clean up cloned files. Also try the File Server Resource Manager to remove stray files.

  1. Back up Data: In addition to removing duplicates to ensure data security, data backups are a critical part of the process. Backing up is necessary and goes a long way to prevent permanent data loss. How often should you be backing up? As often as possible. Keep in mind that backups are critical when organizations get hit with ransomware attacks. Just make sure that your backups aren’t also encrypted!
  2. Access Controls: We’ve made the case above for input validation, data validation, removing duplications, and backups – all necessary to preserve data integrity. Let’s not rule a few popular data security best practices that can also lend a hand or two: access controls and an audit trail! Individuals within an organization without proper access and with malicious intent can do grave harm to the data. What’s worse, an outsider impersonating an insider can also be detrimental. Implementing a least privilege model – where only users who need access to data get access – is a very successful form of access control. What’s often overlooked is physical access to the server. The most sensitive servers should be isolated and bolted to the floor or wall. Only individuals who access should have an access key – ensuring that the keys to the kingdom are kept secure.
  3. Always Keep an Audit Trail: Whenever there is a breach, it’s critical to data integrity to be able to track down the source. Often referred to as an audit trail, this provides an organization the breadcrumbs to accurately pin point the source of the problem.

Typically, an audit trail has the following:

  • Audit trails need to be automatically generated
  • Users should not have access to or the ability to tamper with the audit trail
  • Every event – create, delete, read, modified – is tracked and recorded
  • Every event is also aligned to the user, so you know who accessed the data
  • Every event is time stamped so that you know when the event took place

Data Integrity Empowers Decision Makers

Not too long ago, it was difficult to collect data. However, today it’s no longer an issue. In fact, we’re able to collect so much data, the responsible thing to do is to preserve data integrity. That way, management can confidently make data-driven decisions that steer their company in the right direction.

Interested in more information on data integrity? Take a listen to our podcast with Ann Cavoukian on GDPR and Access Control or browse through our article on The Difference Between IAM’s User Provisioning and Data Access Management.